What do we mean by metacognition inside the classroom?
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Calero, Cecilia I.
The purpose of this review article is to deepen, based on the research of the existing empirical evidence, the state of the art of metacognitive ability in the context of education. Metacognitive ability has been postulated as a central aspect of human cognition within the academic environment, given that its development allows one to efficiently recognise what one knows, what one does not know and which strategies one should evaluate in order to access what one seeks to learn. Thus, a developed metacognition would prepare students to access more explicitly their own learning process, which is, for example, a key to processes such as 'learning to learn'. It is therefore crucial to understand the role of metacognitive processes and their relationship to schooling. Consequently, this article proposes a three-step approach: First, we present the framework definition of metacognition that will be used in the review and how its development occurs from toddlerhood to adulthood. Next, the relationship between metacognition and other related constructs, such as optimism, executive functions and theory of mind, is assessed. We conclude by discussing the possible implications and the available tools for the teaching and development of metacognitive skills in the school setting.